Understanding what research design is
Research is valid when a conclusion is accurate or true and what research design is the conceptual blueprint within which research is conducted. A scholar for his research, prepare an action plan, it constitutes the outline of collection, measurement and analysis of data. It must be remembered what research design is, it is not associated to any particular technique of data collection or any particular type of data. When designing research, it is necessary that we recognize the type of evidence required to answer the research question in a reasonable way.
What Research design can be considered as the structure of research it is the “Glue” that holds all of the elements in a research project together, in short it is a plan of the proposed research work. Understanding what research design is defined by different social scientists in different terms; some of the definitions are as: according to Jahoda, Deutch & Cook “A research design is the arrangement of conditions for the collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy and procedure”. So what research design is the plan, structure and strategy and investigation concaved so as to obtain ensured to search question and control variance”. Henry Manheim says that research design not only anticipates and specifies the seemingly countless decisions connected with carrying out data collection, processing and analysis but it presents a logical basis for these decisions. Zikmund defined as “a master plan specifying the methods and procedure for collecting and analyzing the needed information”. The definitions stress systematic methodology in collecting right information for interpretations with economy and procedure. In-fact what research design is the conceptual within which research is conducted.
What research design should be? A research design should be based more or less on some methodology. It should be made once the topic and problem of research have been selected and formulated, objectives have been properly outlined, concepts have been properly defined and the hypothesis have been properly framed. What research design should provide? It should be able to provide answers of the following reserve queries:
1. What is the study about and, what type of data is required?
2. What research design mentions as the purpose of study?
3. What are the sources of needed data?
4. What research design highlights as the place or area of the study?
5. What research design mentions as approximate time required for the study?
6. What research design highlights as the number of materials or number of cases for the study?
7. What type of sampling should be used?
8. What research design explains as the method of data collection would be appropriate?
9. How will data be analyzed?
10. What research design mentions as the approximate expenditure?
11. What should be the specific nature of the study?
Origin of What Research Design is
To learn better what research design is, it must be noted that Research design emerged as a recognizable field of study in the 1960s, at first marked by a conference on Design Method at Imperial college, London in 1962. It led to the founding of the Design Research Society (DRS) in 1966. John Christopher Jones founded a postgraduate Design Research laboratory at the University Manchester Institute of Science and Technology (who initiated the 1962 conference) and L. Bruce Scher founded the postgraduate Department of Design Research at the Royal College of Art, London and became the first professor of what Research Design is. Some of the origin of design methods and what research design lay in the emergence after the and world management decision making technique the most fundamental challenge to conventional ideas on design has been the grouching advocacy of systematic methods of problem and the development of design solutions. Herbert Simon established the foundations for a science of design which would be a body of intellectually tough, analytic, partly formalizable, partly empirical, teachable doctrine about the design process.
Features of What Research Design is
1. It is a plan that specifies the sources and type of information relevant to the research problem.
2. It is a strategy specifying which approach distill be used gathering and analyzing data.
3. It also includes the time and cost budgets since most studies are done under these two constraints.9
In brief what research design must, at least, contain-
1. A clear statement of research problem.
2. Procedures and technique to be used for gathering data or information.
3. The population to be studied.
4. Methods to be used in processing & analysis data.
The Research process proceeds in six phases:
1. Specifying the problem/topic to be studied
2. Framing what research design is
3. Planning a sample (probability or non-probability or combination of the two)
4. Collecting the data
5. Analyzing the data (editing, coding, processing, tailgating)
6. Preparing the report
Need for What Research Design is
What Research design is necessary for? Research design is important because it makes possible the smooth sailing of the various research procedures, thereby creation research as professional as possible, yielding maximum information with a minimum expenditure of effort, time and money. For better, economical and attractive construction of a house, we need a blueprint (or what is a community called the map of the house) prepared by an expert architect, similarly we need a research design or a plan in advance of data collection and analysis for four research projects. What Research design stands for is advance planning of the methods to be adopted for collecting the relevant data and the techniques to be used in the analysis, keeping in view the objective of the research and the audibility of staff, time and money. Designing the research project may result in rending the research exercise unsuccessful. It is, therefore, imperative that an efficient and appropriate design must be prepared before starting research processes. To learn what research design help in, it must be understood that it helps the investigator to organize his ideas in a shape whereby it will be possible for him to look for errors and shortages.
Nature of What Research Design Should be to be Regarded as Good
To note what research design can be regarded as goo, it must be understood that a good research design is regularly characterized by adjectives like flexible, appropriate, efficient, and economical and so on. Generally, the design which minimizes bias and collected & analyses is considered a good design. The design which gives the smallest experimental error in supposed to be the best design in many investigations similarly; a design which yields maximal information many different aspects of a problem is considered most appropriate and efficient design in respect of many research problems. Some of the strategies to understand what research design is good are as follows:
- Theory – Grounded To learn what research design is good, it must be noted that Good research reflects the theories which are being investigated where specific theoretical expectations can be hypothesized these are incorporated into the design.
- Situational For understanding what research design is understood as Good it must be noted that research designs make known the settings for the study, this was shown above where a specific need of teacher and administrators was openly addressed in the design plan. Similarly, demoralization, intergroup competition and competition might be accessed throughout the use of the additional comparison group who are not in direct contact with the original group.
- Feasible Good design can be implemented. The series and timing of events are cautiously throughout. Possible problems in measurement, devotion to project database construction and the like, are predictable.
- Redundant Good research designs have some flexibility built into them often this flexibility results from the repetition of essential design features.
- Efficient For answering what research design do to be regarded as good, it must be understood that good research design strikes a balance between redundancy and the tendency to over design. Where it is responsible, other, less costly, strategies for ruling out potential threats validity cure utilized.
Types of What Research Design are
The four major categories of research design include the following:
- Exploratory Research
Answering what research design are exploratory in nature?
It is the primary stage of research and the purpose of this research is to achieve new insights into a phenomenon. This research is one which has the purposes of formulating a problem for more accurate investigating a problem for more accurate investigation or for developing a hypothesis. This is applied when there are few or no earlier research/studies to which references can be made for information.
The focus of what research design is exploratory in nature, is on gaming insights and familiarity with the subject area fair more rigorous investigation later. Exploratory studies are usually more appropriate in case of problem about which little research knowledge is available, for instance, there is little knowledge available about social interaction pattern of members of a most monastery an enterprising researcher may be interested in such a problem to obtain insights in the face of little knowledge available about it.
- Descriptive Research
Learning what research design are descriptive in nature.
It is also known as statistical research; this describes phenomena as they exist. It is used to identify and obtain information on characteristic of a particular issue like community, group or people. In other words, we can say that this type of research describes social events, social structure, social situations, etc. The observer observes and describe what did he find? Descriptive research answers the questions, what, who, where, how and when. It is used to study the current situation. It is widely used in the physical and natural science. But it is used more common in the social sciences, as in socio-economic survey and job and activity analysis.
Descriptive research aim at portraying accurately the characteristics of a particular group or situation, one may undertake a descriptive study about the works in a factory, their age distribution, their community-wise, distribution, their educational level, their state of their physical health and so on also one may study the conditions of work in a factory health, safety and welfare. One may undertake to describe the organization of industrial establishment or if a trade union congress. What research design of descriptive nature concerns is the attitude or views (of a person) towards anything e.g., attitudes presidential form of government, right to strike, capital punishment, prohibition, college autonomy etc.
- Explanatory Research Design
Understanding what research design is explanatory in nature.
When the purpose of the study is to explore a new universe, one that has not been studied earlier, what research design is called as explanatory research design. The research is mainly concerned with causes or ‘why’ factor about some phenomenon. It does not involve comparison and factors of change. For instance, research on “violence against bloomed‟ conducted by this author described not only varieties of violence like criminal assault, lettering, kidnapping, murder, dourly death, etc. but also explain why men commit violence because of personality traits like dominance, suspicion, possession, etc. and situational factors like resourcefulness, alcoholism, maladjustment strains, and stresses, and so on. The research purpose in this case is to gain familiarity in unknown areas.
Often explanatory research design is used to formulate a problem for specific investigations, or aim at formulating what research Design is thus, often when the universe of study is an unidentified community, this design forms the first step of research, after which other types of research designs can be used. The hypothesis in what research design of explanatory researches that states the relationship between two or more variable, i.e., not only it is hypothesized that A is related to B but rather that A has some particular effect on B. In other words, we can say an explanatory study thus focuses on determining the ‘why’ aspect of correlationship.
- Experimental Research Design
The Research design that is used to test what Research Design is of causal relationship under controlled situation is called experimental design. We should remember that an experiment is an observation under controlled conditions or in other words, we can say that it is a design in which some of the variables being studied are manipulated or which seek to control the condition within which persons are observed. Controlling of conditions means that the phenomenon or the condition should not be allowed to change while the experimentation is going on.
To understand what research design you must note that in experimentation, various types of evidence have to be, controlled so that the alternative hypothesis can be tested, and causal relationship may be found out. In short, here „control‟ means holding once factor constant while others are free to vary in the experiment. Independent variable is manipulated and its effect upon dependent variable is measured, while other variables which may confound such a relationship are controlled.