Thesis for Ph.D.
The specific use of the word “thesis” refers to the academic writings submitted in fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the doctoral degree or the masters by research degree. The word “thesis” is also used in general to refer to the master’s project report and research dissertations, which are the documents submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of masters by coursework or mixed-mode, as well as the undergraduate project reports.
A thesis for Ph.D. is made up of several sections, arranged in the sequence as mentioned.
- Blank Page
- Declaration of Thesis for Ph.D. Status
- Examiners Declaration
- Students Declaration
- List of Tables
- List of Figures
- List of symbols and abbreviations
- List of Appendices
Moving ahead with each section of the thesis for Ph.D.
Declaration of thesis status
The status of a thesis for Ph.D. must be declared by completing the thesis for Ph.D. Status Form. If a thesis for Ph.D. is to be classified as confidential or limited, a letter seeking this classification must be obtained from the organizations concerned and submitted to the Dean of the Centre for Graduate Studies, the Dean of the Faculty or related academic centers. The approval letter in the thesis for Ph.D. must state the reasons for and duration of the classification. The typical duration for this classification is three years. Where an author classifies a thesis for Ph.D. as unlimited, the University shall assume that the thesis is non-confidential.
Viva-voce examination panel
The names of the members of the viva voce examination panel shall be included in the thesis for Ph.D. This page is not applicable for the master’s project report or the undergraduate project report.
The thesis examination panel is the body entrusted with evaluating the thesis and, therefore, with awarding the doctoral students their final qualifications.
The panel that evaluates the doctoral thesis must consist of three full members and three substitutes, all experts in the field.
The title page of the thesis for Ph.D. must contain the following information in the following order:
- Title of the thesis for Ph.D. ;
- Full name of the student;
- Statement on the purpose of the thesis for Ph.D. submission;
- Name of the faculty or centre where the student is registered;
- Name of the University; and
- The month and year the thesis for Ph.D. was written and accepted. Theses for the Master’s degree by research and the Doctor of Philosophy degree must be approved by the Graduate Studies Committee (Jawatankuasa Pengajian Siswazah), whilst others must be approved by the relevant committee.
The declaration page contains a statement declaring the originality of the thesis for Ph.D. It must be signed by the author.
The dedication message must be concise, must not exceed one paragraph, and must not contain any numbers, graphs, or figures.
Acknowledgments must be written on a single page only. Its purpose is to record the author’s appreciation for individuals or organizations that provided their assistance either directly or indirectly in the preparation of the thesis for Ph.D.
The abstract is a short summary of the thesis for Ph.D. It should describe the rationale and objectives (problem statement), the methodology, as well as the findings and conclusion of the study undertaken. The abstract must not be longer than 250 words for a Master’s thesis or Master’s project report and not longer than 350 words for a Doctoral thesis written in two languages, Bahasa Melayu and English. For a Thesis for Ph.D. written in English, the abstract must be written in English first followed by its Malay translation on the next page. Do not include any literature review, unexplained abbreviations, limitations, or suggestions for future research in the abstract. It must be written with a spacing of one and a half (1½) lines.
Table of contents
The table of contents must begin on a new page. The information in the thesis for Ph.D. is organized by chapter, topic, and the page number. Every chapter, topic, and page number shown in the table of contents must correspond to the same chapter, topic, and page number in the thesis for Ph.D. Subtitles may be displayed up to three levels only.
List of tables
This page contains a list of all tables presented in the thesis for Ph.D. Information such as table numbers, table captions and the corresponding page numbers where the tables appear must be shown clearly in the list. The list must be ordered by chapter.
List of figures
All illustrations included in the text of the thesis for Ph.D. such as maps, charts, drawings, graphs, pictures, and photos are considered as ‘Figures’. The list of figures contains all the figure numbers, titles, and the corresponding page numbers on which they appear. The list of figures must be ordered by chapter.
List of symbols and abbreviations
This page lists down all the symbols, abbreviations, nomenclature, and terminology used in the text. The order of writing them in the thesis for Ph.D. is as follows:
- Roman letter - alphabetical order
- Greek letter - alphabetical order
- Superscript - alphabetical order
- Subscript - alphabetical order
For further information on spelling and abbreviations, students are advised to refer to the latest edition of the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary published by Oxford University Press.
List of appendices
This page lists down the appendices included with the thesis for Ph.D.
Text in the thesis for Ph.D. must be organized in titled chapters. The titles must reflect the content of the chapter. Every chapter must begin on a new page. Chapters can be divided into sub-chapters with corresponding subtitles. Titles and sub-titles must be numbered in the thesis for Ph.D.
There is no restriction on the total number of chapters in a thesis for Ph.D. Generally, a Thesis for Ph.D. will have the following basic structure.
This chapter describes the aim, objectives and scope of the research as well as the structure of the thesis for Ph.D.
- Literature review
The literature review is a critically written and comprehensive account of the published works on a topic by accredited scholars and researchers. It is directly related to the thesis for Ph.D. providing information on theories, models, materials, and techniques used in the research.
This important chapter explains in detail the samples, instruments, materials, procedures, and data gathering methods used in the research while preparing the thesis for Ph.D.
- Data analysis and results
This chapter explains the data analysis techniques and results through written text, figures, tables, and/or other means.
- Discussion and conclusions
In this chapter, the writer discusses the results and research findings obtained in the thesis for Ph.D. by comparing them with the previous research work mentioned in the literature review chapter. Conclusions are drawn based on the research findings and their implications. Future works are also discussed. Students who need to translate their theses are advised to refer to the latest edition of Gaya Dewan Bahasa dan Pedoman Translasi published by Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.
References in the text
When information or idea is taken from a source, the author of the source must be acknowledged in the text. References Cited in the text must be written according to the style prescribed.
Tables in the text
All tables included in the thesis for Ph.D. must be numbered using Arabic numerals. Table numbers must be linked to the chapter number. For example, the third table appearing in Chapter 4 is numbered, “Table 4.3”. The caption for a table is placed 1.5 lines above the table and written in Times New Roman font, size 12 without a period at the end and left justified with single line spacing between lines. The text in the table must be written using Times New Roman font, size 10 and single line spacing between lines. If a table extends beyond the end of a page, its continuation on the next page must, for example, be labeled, “Table 4.3 (continued)”. As an example, please refer to Table 1.1 on pages 1-2. If a table is taken from a particular source, the source must be stated at the end of the caption. A table can only be presented after it is cited in the text. All tables that appear in the text of the Thesis for Ph.D. must be listed in the list of tables.
Figures in the text
All figures must be of high quality and numbered using Arabic numerals. Figure numbers must be linked to the chapter number. For example, the third table/graph/chart/etc appearing Chapter 4 is numbered, “Figure 4.3”. The caption for a figure is placed 1.5 lines below the table/graph/chart/etc and written in font size 12 without a period at the end with single line spacing between lines. If a figure extends beyond the end of a page, its continuation on the next page must, for example, be labeled, “Figure 4.3 (continued)”. If a figure is taken from a particular source, the source must be stated at the end of the caption. A figure is best placed immediately after it is cited in the text. Illustrations in diskettes, on slides, or in other similar mediums must be placed inside a specially made pocket attached to the inside back cover of the thesis for Ph.D. Illustrations with large dimensions, such as plans and maps, must be reduced in size to fit into a single page. Illustrations must comply with the following conditions:
Photographs used as illustration in the thesis for Ph.D. must be affixed in the text using high quality glue or other better techniques.
Newspaper and other clippings
A clear and high-quality photocopied version of the actual clipping must be used instead of the original.
Maps and aerial photographs
Maps and aerial photographs intended to be included in a thesis for Ph.D. must have obtained prior written permission from the Director General of National Mapping. Illustrations must be scanned and printed using a high resolution colour printer.
Mathematical equations included in the thesis for Ph.D. must be numbered using Arabic numerals. Equation numbers must be written at the end of the equation and linked to the chapter number. For example, the numbers (4.3) and (4.4) are given to the third and fourth equations respectively as follows:
y2= 3x2 + 3xy + C
z = 10x6 + 9y5+84 + 7y6x5 + 6y5x4 + 5x4 + 4y4x3 + 3y3x2 +2y2x + yx
References are the sources referred to when preparing a thesis for Ph.D. and cited in the text of the thesis for Ph.D. Writers are required to list down all cited materials in the list of references. The list of references must be prepared according to the format prescribed
The appendix section in the thesis for Ph.D. gives an author the opportunity to include materials that can provide additional information in the text to support the study. These materials include tables, charts, computer programs, and questionnaires. Here are some guidelines for the appendix.
- Research data, tables, examples of questionnaires, maps, photos and other materials that are too long to be included in the text or are not directly required to comprehend the text can be included as appendices. Generally, tables and graphics that are more than two pages long should be put in the appendix section.
- Appendices are labeled as APPENDIX A, APPENDIX B, etc. depending on the type and quantity of the materials. Appendices can also be given specific titles in the thesis for Ph.D.
Students must provide a one-page “Vita” of themselves to be placed at the end of the thesis for Ph.D. after the appendices. This “Vita” page is unnumbered.