Writing Synopsis in Project
Synopsis in project is a short summary of your Ph.D thesis work. Synopsis in project is the plan for your research project. It provides the rationale for the research, the research objectives, the proposed methods for data collection and recording formats and/or questionnaires and interview guides. The synopsis is based on the information provided by the supervisor(s) and by secondary sources of information. In the final report you will present the results of your data collection and elaboration, with the discussion and the conclusion
Standard headings included in a synopsis in project are
¬ Literature review
¬ Experiments and Results
The full synopsis in project should be maximum 2500 to 3000 words,
A synopsis is a detailed summary of the research work that you will be doing for the doctoral degree. A synopsis is different from an abstract. Synopsis is submitted at the start of the research work along with the thesis title. It contains what you will be researching, the significance of your research to the field and how you will go about conducting this research.
Introduction is the first main section in a synopsis in project. The synopsis in project is to be considered as a detailed summary of the work with important results highlighting the original contributions in the thesis to be submitted. It should give an outline of the thesis. The review of earlier work is to be minimized with just enough to highlight the contributions in the research work to be reported in the thesis. It is expected that at the time of submission of the synopsis in project no work is yet to be completed except writing the thesis and all other academic requirements such as course work, comprehensive examinations and the suggestions and directions given by members of the Doctoral Committee have been fulfilled.
One of the most important steps in the writing process is coming up with a dissertation title that does justice to your work. The title of the Synopsis in project and title of the Thesis shall invariably be the same. The title of a thesis or dissertation must do several things in a relatively small number of words.
¬ First and most importantly, your title must tell readers of the synopsis in project what you are about to discuss at length.
¬ Secondly, title of the synopsis in project must also include a creative or unique element, something that lets readers know that your personality is present in your work. Classic titles for dissertations or theses typically contain a common punctuation mark used by many academics: the colon.
Titles with two phrases separated by a colon in the title of the synopsis in project allow you to express two sides of your study and to draw readers into your work through information and creativity. The most important thing to consider when writing a dissertation title is your personality. Because the body of your work reveals your writing style, you should remain true to your style in the title. Don’t try to write a title that you feel is attractive but that ultimately misleads readers in some way. Most of your colleagues who will be reading your work have professional interests that are similar to your own, so don’t worry about what will draw people outside of your academic group because most people who come across your thesis or dissertation will likely be researching a similar topic. The synopsis in project title should be maximum 10 to 15 words.
Literature review is the second session of the synopsis in project which is to be carried out in the identified area. The literature review is not just a list of the methods used/conclusions made by previous studies. Have a look at research papers published in international journals for inspiration - the introductions most often include highly condensed literature reviews. The overall structure of your review in the synopsis in project will depend largely on your own thesis or research area. What you will need to do is to group together and compare and contrast the varying opinions of different writers on certain topics. What you must not do is just describe what one writer says, and then go on to give a general overview of another writer, and then another, and so on. Your structure in the synopsis in project should be dictated instead by topic areas, controversial issues or by questions to which there are varying approaches and theories. Within each of these sections, you would then discuss what the different literature argues, remembering to link this to your own purpose.
A literature review establishes familiarity with and understanding of current research in a particular field before carrying out a new investigation. Conducting a literature review should enable you to find out what research has already been done and identify what is unknown within your topic.
Objectives of the synopsis in project should be identified on the basis of the problem analysis. That means, after reading the problem analysis it should be immediately clear that the choice of objectives is relevant and justified. The objectives should focus on concepts and problems mentioned in the problem analysis Each research proposal should contain one overall objective describing the general contribution that the research project makes to the subject area as well as one or more specific objectives focusing on discrete tasks that will be achieved during the research. The overall objective of the synopsis in project may be something that the study will contribute towards but not solve/finish; the overall objective should not be a compilation of the specific objectives.
The objectives are preferred in synopsis in project are minimum four to five.
- To study and analysis….
- To design the concepts ….
- To identify the concepts to improve….
- To design and develop a….
Methodology explained in the synopsis in project describes a novel method which may be intended for use in your research. A research proposal follows an overall methodology to make conclusions in relation to the overall objective. Some types are experiments, surveys, models and case studies. Within a given research methodology several data collection methods can be relevant, and both quantitative and qualitative methods may be used in the same study. You should specify what research methodology is chosen in the synopsis in project to fulfil the research objectives. A description of the methodology used does not mean a reproduction of standard textbook definitions, instead, references should be used. For example, it is not necessary to explain that a case study approach ‘will allow in-depth analysis of a particular problem and that the limitation is that the results cannot be statistically generalized, but that they could be theoretically generalized for places with similar characteristics. This is part of the definition of a case study, and it would be more informative to explain why a case study approach is suitable in the specific context. Likewise, there is no need to describe in general terms what data will result from an inventory or a semi - structured interview. A reference mentioned in the synopsis in project will be sufficient for commonly used methods, whereas it is relevant to describe the specific data to be collected.
Experiments and Results
This section of the synopsis in project is confident about the proposed solution which is simulated, tested and compared. It presents the analyzed data, preferably in tables and charts. It is a good idea to organize the results logically, for example by first presenting background information like demographics and then continue with in a sequence reflecting the specific objectives. All tables and figure used in the synopsis in project must be numbered and referred to in the text. Table headings go above the table, figure headings go below the figure.
Conclusion section of the synopsis in project is somehow the counterpart to the introduction since this section should lead the reader from narrow and/or very specific results to more general conclusions. Start by clearly stating the main finding of the research. Then go on to outline the implications of the findings in the synopsis in project. How important is your contribution to the understanding that is currently held on the subject area and niche? What future studies could be recommended?
Synopsis in project should contain at the end a list of references, and a bibliography if required. These should be written on a standard pattern. Therefore, be sure to write the full reference in the reference list, including author, publication year, title, title of journal/series, volume of journal/series contribution, publisher (omitted for journal), location (omitted for journal), page number. Finally listed out your list of publications including journals, conference etc. at the end of the synopsis in project.