The Vancouver style of Referencing: A guide on referencing styles Vancouver.


The referencing styles Vancouver is a form of referencing used in medical and scientific journals. It is formally known as "Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals" (ICMJE Recommendations). The name Vancouver style comes from the fact that it was developed in Vancouver in 1978 by editors of medical journals

The  referencing styles Vancouver is a very detailed and precise form of referencing which ensures complete transparency in locating the source of any scientific argument or data quoted in text. The referencing styles Vancouver uses a 'numerical-endnote' approach. Some salient features of the referencing styles Vancouver are given as follows:

 

 

Citing sources using the Referencing Styles Vancouver:

The  referencing styles Vancouver uses a special format for citing which has been classified and characterised as follows:

 

  1. Citing several pieces of work together in the referencing styles Vancouver: If a number of works are referenced in one single sentence then the citation number for each piece of work must be used. In referencing styles Vancouver a hyphen is used to cite consecutive numbers, and a comma is used where the cited numbers are not consecutive. example: if the numbers 4,5,6, 10, 12 have been cited in the same sentence in the text it can be written as, Recent studies(4-6, 10, 12) have studied the social aspect of the pandemic in isolated areas.
  2. Citing the author's name in the text in the referencing styles Vancouver: Citation number must be used even when the author's name is mentioned in the sentence/ text when done in referencing styles Vancouver.
  3. Citing more than one author's name in the referencing styles Vancouver: If a work cited has more than one author then the first author's name must be written followed by 'et al' .
  4. Citing different works published by the author in the same year in the referencing styles Vancouver: When citing different works, each work must be assigned a unique number even if it is by the same author and published in the same year.
  5. Citing from chapters in a book written by different authors in the referencing styles Vancouver: When citing work from a book with a collection of chapters by different authors, the author of the particular chapter quoted in the text must be cited when done using referencing styles Vancouver.
  6. Secondary reference citation in the referencing styles Vancouver: A secondary reference is when the originally quoted author's work refers to another author's work and the primary source is not available. In this case the author of the primary source and the author of the work it was cited in should be used.e.g. in referencing styles Vancouver, According to Stephen and Hawkins as cited by Richard et al(8) most patients given opiates do not become addicts.
  7. Citing a direct quotation in the referencing styles Vancouver: In citing a direct quote from a book/ article, single quotation marks must be used and the page number stated alongside.e.g. in referencing styles Vancouver, Philip et. al. (2) state that the  principal of effective communications is 'imperfectly known by many doctors'(TT p-5)
  8. Citing an image/ illustration/ table/ diagram/ photograph/ figure/ picture in the referencing styles Vancouver:Any image, illustration, photograph, diagrams etc should be treated as direct quotes. The author(s) should be acknowledged and page numbers mentioned. They must all be given an in-text unique citation number.
  9. Citing from multimedia works in the referencing styles Vancouver: The title of the TV programme or  title of the film is to be cited as the author. If it is a youtube video or some other video streaming web service then the name of the person uploading the video can be used as author. In the referencing styles Vancouver it is not necessary to include the author's name in citation but the author must be included at the end of the work in the reference list .
  10. Citing from interview/ personal communication in the referencing styles Vancouver: The surname of the interviewee/ practitioner to be used as an  author in referencing styles Vancouver.

 

How to write a reference in the referencing styles Vancouver :

In the referencing styles Vancouver the basic information needed is

Other information needed in the referencing styles Vancouver may be

 

 Writing the reference list in the referencing styles Vancouver:


 

Bibliography:

A bibliography in the referencing styles Vancouver can be at the end of the work and it includes books/ articles/ sources that have been consulted but not cited in the work done. The bibliography using the referencing styles Vancouver is usually written in the alphabetical order of the author's name. It usually shows the extra work done by the researcher. An important aspect is that the  works included in the bibliography does not need to be numbered as is otherwise in the referencing styles Vancouver .

 

How to cite using the  referencing styles Vancouver:

 

Citing a print Book using the referencing styles Vancouver:



 

Citing an electronic Book in the referencing styles Vancouver:

 

Citing a chapter from an edited Book in the referencing styles Vancouver:

 

 

Citing a print journal article in the referencing styles Vancouver:

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