The Vancouver style of Referencing: A guide on referencing styles Vancouver.
The referencing styles Vancouver is a form of referencing used in medical and scientific journals. It is formally known as "Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals" (ICMJE Recommendations). The name Vancouver style comes from the fact that it was developed in Vancouver in 1978 by editors of medical journals.
The referencing styles Vancouver is a very detailed and precise form of referencing which ensures complete transparency in locating the source of any scientific argument or data quoted in text. The referencing styles Vancouver uses a 'numerical-endnote' approach. Some salient features of the referencing styles Vancouver are given as follows:
- The reference list in the referencing styles Vancouver is placed at the very end of the essay/report with every entry listed numerically and in the exact order that they have been cited.
- In the referencing styles Vancouver, citations within the text of the research paper are identified by Arabic numbers in round brackets e.g. (2).
- The referencing styles Vancouver assigns a unique number to each source that is cited. This unique number is assigned in the order of citation. The number for the source has to be used even when the author(s) is named in the sentence/ text.
- In the referencing styles Vancouver unique citation number for the source is to be written in brackets or as a superscript.
Citing sources using the Referencing Styles Vancouver:
The referencing styles Vancouver uses a special format for citing which has been classified and characterised as follows:
- Citing several pieces of work together in the referencing styles Vancouver: If a number of works are referenced in one single sentence then the citation number for each piece of work must be used. In referencing styles Vancouver a hyphen is used to cite consecutive numbers, and a comma is used where the cited numbers are not consecutive. example: if the numbers 4,5,6, 10, 12 have been cited in the same sentence in the text it can be written as, Recent studies(4-6, 10, 12) have studied the social aspect of the pandemic in isolated areas.
- Citing the author's name in the text in the referencing styles Vancouver: Citation number must be used even when the author's name is mentioned in the sentence/ text when done in referencing styles Vancouver.
- Citing more than one author's name in the referencing styles Vancouver: If a work cited has more than one author then the first author's name must be written followed by 'et al' .
- Citing different works published by the author in the same year in the referencing styles Vancouver: When citing different works, each work must be assigned a unique number even if it is by the same author and published in the same year.
- Citing from chapters in a book written by different authors in the referencing styles Vancouver: When citing work from a book with a collection of chapters by different authors, the author of the particular chapter quoted in the text must be cited when done using referencing styles Vancouver.
- Secondary reference citation in the referencing styles Vancouver: A secondary reference is when the originally quoted author's work refers to another author's work and the primary source is not available. In this case the author of the primary source and the author of the work it was cited in should be used.e.g. in referencing styles Vancouver, According to Stephen and Hawkins as cited by Richard et al(8) most patients given opiates do not become addicts.
- Citing a direct quotation in the referencing styles Vancouver: In citing a direct quote from a book/ article, single quotation marks must be used and the page number stated alongside.e.g. in referencing styles Vancouver, Philip et. al. (2) state that the principal of effective communications is 'imperfectly known by many doctors'(TT p-5)
- Citing an image/ illustration/ table/ diagram/ photograph/ figure/ picture in the referencing styles Vancouver:Any image, illustration, photograph, diagrams etc should be treated as direct quotes. The author(s) should be acknowledged and page numbers mentioned. They must all be given an in-text unique citation number.
- Citing from multimedia works in the referencing styles Vancouver: The title of the TV programme or title of the film is to be cited as the author. If it is a youtube video or some other video streaming web service then the name of the person uploading the video can be used as author. In the referencing styles Vancouver it is not necessary to include the author's name in citation but the author must be included at the end of the work in the reference list .
- Citing from interview/ personal communication in the referencing styles Vancouver: The surname of the interviewee/ practitioner to be used as an author in referencing styles Vancouver.
How to write a reference in the referencing styles Vancouver :
In the referencing styles Vancouver the basic information needed is
- Name of author/ editor
- Date of publication/ broadcast/ recording
- Title of the source cited
Other information needed in the referencing styles Vancouver may be
- Name of publisher
- place of publication
- page numbers
- volume number
- issue number
- the website address)
- DOU(For publishing outputs)
- Title of the conference
- Date of accessing the online material
Writing the reference list in the referencing styles Vancouver:
- In the referencing styles Vancouver, this is an in inclusive list showing all the sources cited in the text of the work.
- When using the referencing styles Vancouver the Title Reference list should be in numerical order with each number matching and referring to be the one in the text.
- the list in referencing styles Vancouver should be at the end of your work.
A bibliography in the referencing styles Vancouver can be at the end of the work and it includes books/ articles/ sources that have been consulted but not cited in the work done. The bibliography using the referencing styles Vancouver is usually written in the alphabetical order of the author's name. It usually shows the extra work done by the researcher. An important aspect is that the works included in the bibliography does not need to be numbered as is otherwise in the referencing styles Vancouver .
How to cite using the referencing styles Vancouver:
Citing a print Book using the referencing styles Vancouver:
- Author/Editor:(if editor (ed.) should pe put after name)
- Title in italics.
- Series title and number( if book is part of a series)
- Edition number
- The publication place
- Year of publication.
Citing an electronic Book in the referencing styles Vancouver:
- Author/ Editor: ( if editor (ed.) should be put after name)
- Title in italics
- Series title and number of the book
- Edition number ( if not the first edition)
- Place it was published in( first place to be mentioned if more than one place written)
- Year of publication
- [Date of access]
Citing a chapter from an edited Book in the referencing styles Vancouver:
- The chapter author
- Title of the chapter cited followed by, In:
- Editor(put (ed.) after name)
- Title of the book in italics
- if part of series then series title and number
- mention edition number if not first edition
- Place it was published in ( first place to be mentioned if more than one place written)
- Year of publication.
- page numbers. 'p' to be used before single and multiple page numbers
Citing a print journal article in the referencing styles Vancouver:
- the journal title
- italics in title
- the publication year
- the article volume number
- the article issue number
- the article page numbers as cited