What is PhD


              PhD is an abbreviation for Doctor of Philosophy. This degree is the highest degree in terms of education. Phd degree is a prestigious degree. Getting a PhD degree is not so easy. Because a person, who wants to pursue phd should develop a deeper and wider knowledge about the concerned subject. Phd kya h should be done with the candidate’s interest towards the subject. Nowadays phd’s are so common, that everybody is opting to study. But  Phd kya h should be done with some dedication. Phd kya h is a research paper, which will go till 4 years. This 4 years consists of 1 st year is for course work. The course work in Phd kya h consists of 3 research papers. Phd kya h it includes research methodology, this paper is common to everyone pursuing phd. The other 3 years in Phd kya h is the research done with the selected topic.

1) Selection of the title for phd kya h(thesis): First and foremost thing in Phd kya h is selection of the topic for thesis presentation. The topic selected by the candidate, shows the value of the thesis. The candidate should be very clear in selecting the topic. They should deeply think that the taken title and core value of research should be maintained in phd kya h. The work done by the candidate is useful for the society. For example, if a phd kya h is done in the branch of science, may be biochemistry, biotechnology, botany, zoology etc. It generally depends on the pharmaceutical based research. It is helpful for mankind in their safety aspects. But the phd kya h done in the economic , sociology is completely different, where it deals with the administration of our nation.


2) Research methodology in phd kya h:   Research methodology is the general paper in the course work during phd kya h. This paper is mainly kept for the students, to know about the techniques involved in the research. Because if a person wants to do research, one should be thorough in the instrumentation. Practical knowledge is a must in Phd kya h. They should know to handle the instruments in phd kya h and how these instruments are involved in their research techniques. From the name, it is understood that the study of methods in the research.


3) Selection of the supervisor and co-supervisor in phd kya h: After getting an idea of the title and phd kya h work to be carried out. And to that research work, what all the research methods used with the help of research methodology paper, the important thing in phd kya h is the selection of supervisor and co- supervisor. Because if we chose a supervisor (he/she,) does not wants to explore your new innovations and your ideas. Our phd kya h will become spoiled. The supervisor should have a specialization in our research topic, so that they can help the phd kya h candidate. They should support them throughout this journey holding a phd kya h degree. If the supervisor allow to select the co-supervisor, then phd kya h student should get approval from both the supervisors for any step putforth by them. Supervisor are also called as principal investigator. Because phd kya h not only involves in thesis writing but also writing  research articles in high impact journals. It is important to note that both the supervisors are in the same line of study.


4) University / college/ Research Laboratories- phd kya h: The place, where we pursue phd kya h is more important, because wherever we go, if we say “ Im a phd holder” , people ask where did you do your research work? , and secondly the university we are choosing should be a genuine place for education. There are many universities which are fake, they did not make the students to do phd kya h, instead they give the fake certificates. This is of no use. If we do research in a college, college should be affliated to university and it should come under UGC(University Grants Commission). The same criteria is applicable to the research laboratories also. The director of the research institution should have a good experience in research field and about current research takes place in and around the world. If we decide to pursue phd kya h in research laboratories, these are the things we should remember. And we should always see the infrastructure of the laboratory, to pursue phd kya h.



5)    Publishing Research articles- High impact journals in phd kya h: An important thing to be discussed in phd  kya h is publishing of research articles in high impact journals. Whatever is done in phd kya h work, either as a preliminary work or main work, it has to be published then and there. Every year UGC (University Grants Commission), releases a list of journals in their website. It consists of national and international journals. The journals are created by the respective colleges and universities. The candidate should select the journal with high impact factor.( Impact factor- is present in each journal, where it calculated based on the number of persons submitting to their journals. With this calculation, the impact factor is calculated. For example, the impact factor is 4 for a journal, it means the number of persons, submitting to their journal is high). The candidate should note this impact factor and submit their research articles to the respective journal.  Article processing charges are present in some of the journals in phd kya h.


6)    Funding for pursuing phd kya h: Some candidate’s will have interest to continue with phd kya h, but because of the low income they could not proceed further. For this reason, every year UGC conducts an National Eligibility Tests(NET), for the students to get profited in phd kya h. It is conducted twice in a year. 1) UGC-NET, 2) CSIR-NET. Where UGC-NET is for the arts , humanities, sociology, History etc candidates for them to get benefitted. On the other hand, CSIR-NET, is conducted by UGC for the life science, earth science, chemical science, physical science etc. The main aim of UGC is to increase the number of persons pursuing research and to help them in funding. If the candidate clears in this examinations they will get the place of study opted by the candidate with free of cost. UGC not only conducts this for research alone, for research, the category is JRF(Junior Research Fellow), LS (LectureShip) is also conducted. The lectureship is a little bit low cut-off than jrf. The person ,who miss the opportunity to pursue phd kya h, if they score the cut-off for lectureship, they are going to be the lecturers/ assistant professors in university or colleges.


7) Seminars/conferences to attend in phd kya h:  Seminars and conferences should be attended by the candidate during their phd kya h.  Because, if the candidate presents his/her paper in front of a group of people. He/she gains confidence. So that they can present the viva-voce examination with confidence. So, seminars and conferences are important to take part during phd kya h.


8)     Presentation of thesis: Viva-voce Examination in phd kya h: The final step in Phd kya h is presentation of our dissertation. This is called as public viva-voce examination. This takes place in auditorium, in front of the higher authorities, supervisors, external and internal examiners. It takes about 1 hour consists of presentation, followed by viva in phd kya h. If the candidate answers all the questions raised by the examiners and public, then he/she, will be awarded the prestigious phd kya h degree. Everyone gives an applause for the candidate. 


                    These are some of the valuable points in the journey of phd. The candidate should be aware of all these criteria, to pursue phd kya h.